Key Concept 5.1 Industrialization fundamentally altered the production of goods around the world. It not only changed how goods were produced and consumed and what was considered a “good,” it also had far-reaching effects on the global economy, social relations, and culture. Although it is common to speak of the “Industrial Revolution,” the process of industrialization was a gradual one that unfolded over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries, eventually becoming global.
Key Concept 5.2 As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building. The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world. The United States and Japan also participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires, and in some cases justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities. Key Concept 5.3 The 18th century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments and the establishment of new nation-states around the world. Enlightenment thought and the resistance of colonized peoples to imperial centers shaped this revolutionary activity. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies, including an increasing insistence on self-rule and pursuit of democracy in a number of instances. These new ideas in turn led to the revolutionary and anti-imperial movements of this period.
Key Concept 5.4 Migration patterns changed dramatically throughout this period, and the numbers of migrants increased significantly. These changes were closely connected to the development of transoceanic empires and a global capitalist economy. In some cases, people bene ted economically from migration, while other people were seen simply as commodities to be transported. Migration produced dramatically different sending and receiving societies, and it presented challenges to governments in fostering national identities and regulating the flow of people.