Southernization by Lynda Shaffer
Journal of World History Vol. 5, No. 1 (Spring, 1994) (pp. 1-21)
Summary: A process called southernization first began in Southern Asia. By the fifth century C.E., developments associated with southernization were present in India, whence they spread to China and then to the Middle East and the Mediterranean basin. After 1200 they began to have an impact on southern Europe. These developments included the discovery of bullion sources, the emergence of a new mathematics, the pioneering of trade routes, the trade in tropical spices, the cultivation of southern crops such as sugar and cotton, and the invention of various technologies.
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